In this article, we shall see the types and characteristics of materials used for Cutting tools. We have provided a PDF download link for the same.
As we all know, to perform a certain operation we need different types of cutting tools. It is used in metal cutting or forming to acquire the desired shape, size, and surface finish. Cutting tools can be chosen according to the following criteria
- Job Material
- Which type of operation you are going to perform
What are cutting tools
Cutting tools are tools that are designed to remove material from a workpiece by cutting or machining. They are commonly used in manufacturing, woodworking, metalworking, and other industries. There are many types of cutting tools available, including saws, drills, milling cutters, and lathe-cutting tools.
The choice of cutting tools depends on the material being cut, the desired shape and size of the finished product, and the precision required. Cutting tools are typically made from high-speed steel, carbide, or ceramic materials, and they must be sharp and properly maintained to achieve the best results. Proper use of cutting tools can improve productivity and quality, while also reducing waste and costs.
Classification of cutting tools
The cutting tools are broadly classified as follows
- Single-point cutting tools: These are cutting tools that have a single cutting edge, such as turning tools, boring tools, and threading tools.
- Multi-point cutting tools: These are cutting tools that have multiple cutting edges, such as milling cutters, drills, and reamers.
- Abrasive cutting tools: These are cutting tools that use abrasives, such as grinding wheels or cutting discs, to remove material from a workpiece.
- Shearing cutting tools: These are cutting tools that use a shearing action to cut the material, such as scissors or sheet metal cutters.
- Burnishing cutting tools: These are cutting tools that use a burnishing or polishing action to smooth the surface of a workpiece, such as honing tools or lapping tools.
- Electronic cutting tools: These are cutting tools that use electrical or electromagnetic energy to remove material from a workpiece, such as wire EDM machines or laser cutters.
Types of Cutting Tools
Different types of cutting tools are used in different types of machines, according to the usage of the cutting tool, we can divide it into 7-types, which are as follows
- According to the shape of the cutting tool.
- According to the types of cutting.
- Depending on types of operations.
- The material of the cutting tool.
- With respect to the number of the cutting tool used in one tool.
- According to the direction of the tool movement.
- According to the motion of the tool.
According to the shape of the cutting tool
A cutting tool can be differentiated with the help of their shapes, in this category we can devise a cutting tool as follows
- Tool Bit
- Tipped Tool
- Pointed Tool
- Grain Size
Generally, this type of cutting tool is used in turning operations like lathe turning tools.
It is a non-rotary cutting tool, we can use this cutting tool for shaping, planning, etc., etc. This is a single-point cutting tool which means there will be one cutting edge.
An example of this kind of cutting tool is the Lathe turning tool fixed in the holder and Cast non-ferrous satellite cobalt, etc.
This cutting tool is made of different types of materials.
That means the body of the cutting tool is made of another material and the cutting portion of the tool is made of some other material, to join two different materials we use different types of processes like weld, clamped, etc.
As the name suggests point, that means the tip of the tool is so fine, and the edges end in a single line, few examples of these types of cutting tools are diamond pointed on the holder and hard carbide-pointed tools.
These are one of the costlier types of cutting tools.
Cutting tools depends on the number of grains and the size of the grain, if suppose the grain size is big then it will remove more material and if the grain size is small it will remove less material.
For example, an abrasive type tool is used in grinding wheels.
According to the types of cutting
According to the types of cutting, we can divide a cutting tool into two types which are as follows
- Orthogonal Cutting
- Oblique Cutting
In this type of cutting, the cutting edge is perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the tool. For example, two-dimensional cutting for square shoulder operation.
In oblique cutting the angle between the cutting edge and the direction of the tool, motion is anywhere except 90 degrees. For example, three-dimensional cutting is mostly used in turning operations.
Types of material used for making the cutting tool
With respect to the materials used, the cutting tool is divided into the following categories which are as follows
- High Carbon Steel
- High-Speed Steel
- Cast non-ferrous steel cobalt
- Cemented Carbide
Cutting tools depending on the types of operation
- Turning Tool (Used for turning in lathe machine)
- Drilling Tool (Used for drilling operation performed in drilling machine or lathe machine)
- Parting Off Tool (Used to cut the job after the operation is finished in Lathe machine)
- Milling Tool (Used to cut the slots and gears)
- Thread Cutting Tool (Used to cutting thread in a lathe machine)
With respect to the number of the cutting tool used in one tool
There are three types of cutting tool in this category are as follows
- Single-Point Cutting Tool
- Double-Point Cutting Tool
- Multi-point Cutting Tool
Single Point Cutting Tool
In a single-point cutting tool, there is only one cutting edge by which the material will remove, the examples of single-point cutting tools are turning the tool, and shaping tools.
Double Point Cutting Tool
In this type of cutting tool, there are two edges to cut the material, for example, a twist drill.
Multi Point Cutting Tool
In a multi-point cutting tool, there are no. of cutting edges by which the material will be removed, here are examples of multi-point cutting tools, drilling tools called milling cutters, broaching machines, etc.
According to the direction of the tool movement
The cutting tool can be categorized in term of tool movement as follows
- Righ Hand Tool
- Left-hand Tool
In the right-hand cutting tool, the tool movement is from the right side to the left side.
In the left-hand cutting tool, the tool movement is from the right side to the left side. Both the cutting tools we can use in the lathe machine according to the types of operation we need.
According to the motion of the tool
Cutting tool are divided into 5-category according to the motion, which are as follows
- Translatory Motion (Lathe cutting tools)
- Intermittent Translatory Motion (Planning tools)
- Reciprocating Motion (Shaping tools)
- Rotary Motion (Milling tools)
- Rotary and Verticle Translatory Motion (Drilling tools)
the Diagram of Some of the cutting tools
Characteristic of Cutting Tool Materials
When you choose or make a cutting tool you should take care of its property, strength, and quality, below are some characteristics that it should posses
- Cutting tools should have high strength, and hardness even at higher or lower temperatures.
- It should not change any of the material properties (ductility, hardness, strength) in the long rung.
- It should have high toughness and should have the ability to withstand shock and vibration.
- The tool should be cheap in price.
- Easily manufactured.
- It should have a low coefficient of friction.
Materials used in cutting tool with their function
It is used to make the tool elastic and corrosion resistance.
It is used to give strength and toughness to the tool.
It is used to increase the hardness as well as to resist corrosion.
It can resist high temperatures.
It is used to increase the sharpness of cutting edges.
How to perform cutting tool resharpening
These are the steps to perform cutting tool resharpening
- Inspection: Before resharpening a cutting tool, it is important to inspect it for signs of wear or damage. This can include examining the cutting edge for chips or cracks, checking the tool for excessive wear, and verifying that the tool is properly aligned.
- Cleaning: The cutting tool should be thoroughly cleaned before resharpening to remove any dirt, debris, or coolant residue that may have accumulated. This can be done using a cleaning solution or a wire brush.
- Grinding: The cutting tool can be sharpened using a grinding wheel or a diamond wheel, depending on the type of tool and the desired finish. The grinding process should be done carefully, ensuring that the proper angle and radius are maintained and that the tool is cooled with coolant to prevent overheating.
- Honing: After grinding, the cutting tool may need to be honed to remove any burrs or imperfections on the cutting edge. This can be done using a honing stone or a diamond hone.
- Testing: Once the cutting tool has been resharpened, it should be tested to ensure that it is properly aligned, that the cutting edge is sharp and free of defects, and that it is capable of cutting the desired material.
- Reinstalling: After testing, the cutting tool can be reinstalled in the machine and used as needed.
Examples of cutting tools and equipment
These are some examples of cutting tools and equipment
- Saws: These tools are used to cut through a variety of materials including wood, metal, and plastic using a blade or abrasive disc. Examples include circular saws, band saws, and jigsaws.
- Drills: Cutting tools that create holes in materials by rotating a drill bit. Examples include twist drills, spade drills, and hole saws.
- Milling machines: Equipment used to shape and cut materials by removing material from a workpiece. Examples include vertical milling machines, horizontal milling machines, and CNC milling machines.
- Lathes: Equipment used to shape and cut materials by rotating the workpiece against a cutting tool. Examples include engine lathes, turret lathes, and CNC lathes.
- Grinders: These tools remove material from a workpiece using a grinding wheel. They can be used for precision grinding, sharpening, or deburring. Examples include surface grinders, cylindrical grinders, and tool and cutter grinders.
- Laser cutters: These machines use a high-powered laser beam to cut through materials such as metal, plastic, and wood. They are ideal for intricate designs and precise cuts.
- Waterjet cutters: These machines use a high-pressure jet of water to cut through materials such as metal, stone, and glass. They are ideal for cutting through thicker materials and can be used for intricate designs as well.
Who are the well-known cutting tool suppliers and cutting tool manufacturers
These are some well-known suppliers and manufacturers with Indian and US origins
- Indian Tool Manufacturers (ITM)
- Addison & Co. Ltd.
- Kennametal India Limited
- Sandvik Coromant USA
- Niagara Cutter
- Morse Cutting Tools
- Allied Machine & Engineering Corp.
- Cutting Tooling INC
which are the Different types of Glass cutting tools
The different types of glass cutting tools are as follows
- Glass cutters
- Diamond glass cutters
- Glass breaking pliers
- Running pliers
- Circle cutters
- Glass nippers
- Glass saws
- Laser glass cutters
Which are the Different types of wood cutting tools
The Different types of wood cutting tools are as follows
- Circular saw
- Table saw
- Miter saw
- Hand plane
In conclusion, cutting tools are an essential part of the machining process, used to remove material from a workpiece. Different types and geometries of cutting tools are available for various machining operations, and their nomenclature and angles play a vital role in their selection and use. Having a good understanding of cutting tool characteristics is crucial for achieving optimal results in machining processes.