Geothermal Energy Definition, Working Diagram, 8 Parts, Layout, Examples, Pros & Cons [PDF]

In this article, we shall be studying the definition, working diagram, layout, and examples of Geothermal energy. We have also provided a PDF for the same.

Structure of Earth
Photo by Shutterstock

Geothermal Energy Definition

Geothermal Energy = Earth Heat

This is a clean renewable source of energy that provides energy to households around the world. Geothermal energy is the energy source that is generated with the help of the earth’s heat and several components like a Separator, turbine, Generator, Condenser, Cooling tower, and more such components are used.

Earth core
Photo by Science Direct

The above diagram of earth’s interior describes the earth having several layers which are as following

  • Iron core: A huge amount of temperature presence
  • Outer core (magma): Due to a huge amount of temperature presence on the iron core that heat comes to contact with the outer core and gets much heated
  • Magma and rock: Here rocks are presence and the outer core heat, heats the rock with a high temperature and
  • Water: The water contacts with the magma and rock (Due to high temperature) the generation of steam occurs.
  • Living land: The land on which tree is set up and the living things are present like (Human, Animal, Insects, Trees and many more).

Geothermal Energy Working Diagram / Layout  / Examples

The main parts of Geothermal Energy are as following

  • Separator
  • Turbine
  • Generator
  • Power Lines
  • Condenser
  • Cooling Tower
Geothermal Energy diagram
Photo By Shutterstock

At the earth’s center, there is almost 5000° C temperature. This temperature heats the magma and then the stones which are present there gets heated. So the stone has a huge temperature when in contact with the water it reacts or produces vapor (formation of steam because of high temperature) which is further used for generation of electricity.

Video By U.S. Department of Energy

Here we have set up several types of equipment for several purposes. As you can see the layout. Then the steam (less percent of liquid present) comes into the separator where the presence of water leaves and the steam send to the turbine. Now the turbine rotates and generator is attached to the Turbine so Electricity generates or produces.

In the turbine section, some amount of unused steam or we can say steam not used for the production of electricity comes to the condenser through the pipe and there it loses high temp and pressure and then it comes to the ground. The layout describes the several processes that occurs with several types of equipment


Here the separator works like separating the steam and water.


The turbine is used for power generation. Steam from the separator sends to the turbine for the rotating vane and generation of electricity.


This is attached to the turbine and the main work of the generator is to generate steam with the help of the turbine.

Power lines

Power lines are attached to the Power House room and it supplies electricity to various places.


Some stem that is not used in the turbine comes to the condenser through the pipe, where it loses the temperature and pressure and then goes to the ground.

Cooling tower

Cooling Tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat from the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. 

Advantages of Geothermal Energy

  • The steam (which is used for running the turbine to generate the electricity) is naturally available there is no require additional steam to generate.
  • No fuel is required to generate the Steam because it generates naturally.
  • This energy is reliable and the source & Cheapest source of energy.
  • It is available 24 hours per day.
  • Its availability is independence of weather.
  • Its storage is inherent so there is no need for an extra storage device is required.
  • Geothermal plants require little land area as compared to other power plants like a hydel power plant.
  • The feasibility of the modular approach represents a lot of opportunities for the development of relatively quick, cost-effective geothermal projects.
  • The potential capacity of about 0.035 to 2 TW (TeraWatt) worldwide.
  • Renewable sources of energy.

Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy

  • Environmental Friendly sources of energy.
  • This is site-specific that means at every place you can not build the geothermal power station.
  • Generally, the energy is available at low-grade heat.
  • Continuous extraction of heated groundwater may lead to subsidence (Setting or slumping) of land.
  • Geothermal fluid also brings with dissolved gases and solute as high as 25 kg/m3 which leads to air and land pollution.
  • Drilling operation leads to noise pollution.
  • The available thermal energy cannot be distributed easily over a long distance longer than 30KM.
  • Corrosion and abrasive geothermal fluid reduce the life of geothermal plants.

Application of Geothermal Energy

  • Power generation
  • Cooking
  • Space heating
  • Use in greenhouse cultivation
  • Crop Drying

The major or direct use of geothermal energy is divided into 3 category which are as following

  • Power Generation
  • Heat Pump
  • Direct uses

Geothermal Energy In India

Below we have shown an India map that describes the Geothermal energy location at various places. Following are the six most promising geothermal energy sites in India:

  • Tattapani in Chhattisgarh
  • Puga in Jammu & Kashmir
  • Cambay Graben in Gujarat
  • Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh
  • Surajkund in Jharkhand
  • Chhumathang in Jammu & Kashmir

The six major geothermal provinces in India are as follows

  • Himalayan Province e.g. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, etc.
  • Areas of Faulted blocks e.g. Aravalli belt, Naga-Lushi, West coast regions, and Son-Narmada lineament.
  • Volcanic Arc e.g. Andaman and Nicobar Arc (Barren Island).
  • The deep sedimentary basin of Tertiary age e.g. Cambay basin in Gujarat.
  • Radioactive Province e.g. Surajkund, Hazaribagh, and Jharkhand.
  • Cratonic Province e.g. Peninsular India.

Indian organizations working in geothermal energy are as following

  • Central Electricity Authority
  • Geological Survey of India
  • Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai
  • Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu
  • National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad
  • Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, Dehradun


To sum up, geothermal energy is an environmentally friendly and renewable source of energy that harnesses heat from the Earth’s core to generate electricity. It is essential to comprehend the working diagram, layout, and examples of geothermal energy to advance the development of sustainable energy systems. By utilizing geothermal energy, we can lessen our reliance on non-renewable energy sources and help combat climate change.


Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Leave a Comment