Unlock Grinding Wheels Specification, 7 Types Bonding, & Applications [PDF]

In this article, we shall learn about the definition, types, grain, grade, structure, bond, specifications, and selection of Grinding wheels. We have provided a PDF for the same.

Grinding Wheel Definition

Grinding wheels are expendable wheels composed of an abrasive compound. A Grinding wheel has multiple cutting edges made up of many hard a particle called abrasives. The abrasives are crushed to have sharp edges for cutting operations.

grinding wheels

The abrasive grains are properly mixed with is a suitable bond, which acts as a holder when the wheel is in use. The grinding wheel may be manufactured in one piece or segments of oppressive blocks build up into a solid wheel. These wheels are available in different shapes and mounted on different forms of Machines for a particular type of work. Grinding wheels are manufactured with higher geometrical accuracy resulting in a more uniform and consistent wheel.


Abrasive is a material that helps to provide a shiny look on a surface. Abrasives are of two types

  • Natural Abrasives (Diamond, Quartz, Sand)
  • Artificial Abrasive (Synthetic diamond, Tin Oxide, Aluminum oxide, Silicon Carbide)
Grinding wheel abrasives types
Photo By Amazon

Super abrasives

Super abrasives make up a special category of bonded abrasives designed for grinding the hardest, most challenging work materials.

Because carbides, high-speed steels, PCD, PCBN, ceramics, and some other materials used to make cutting tools can be nearly as hard as conventional abrasives, the job of sharpening them falls to a special class of abrasives-diamond and the CBN, the super-abrasives. These materials offer extreme hardness, but they are more expensive than conventional abrasives (silicon carbide and aluminum oxide). Therefore, super-abrasive grinding wheels have different construction than conventional abrasive wheels.

Grinding Wheel

Types of Grinding Wheels

In general, there are 10-types of grinding wheels available in the market which are as follows

  • Straight Grinding wheels
  • Cylinder or wheel ring
  • Tapered Grinding wheels
  • Straight cup
  • Dish cup
  • Saucer Grinding Wheels
  • Diamond Grinding Wheels
  • Segmented wheel
  • Flaring cup wheel
  • Mounted point wheel
a man doing grinding operation

Straight Grinding wheels

The straight wheel is the most common mode of a wheel that is found on pedestals or bench grinders. This is the one widely used for centerless & cylindrical surface grinding operations. As it is used only on the periphery, it forms a little concave surface on the piece. This is used to gain several tools like chisels.

Straight Grinding Wheel Amazon
Photo By Amazon

The size of these wheels differs to a great extent, the width & diameter of its face obviously depend on the category of its work, machine grinding power.

Cylinder or wheel ring Grinding wheels

A cylinder wheel has no center mounting support but has a long & wide surface. Their width is up to 12″ and is used purely in horizontal or vertical spindle grinders. This is used to produce a flat surface, here we do grinding with the ending face of the wheel.

Cylinder Grinding Wheels Amazon
Photo By Amazon

Tapered Grinding wheels

A tapered Grinding wheel is a straight wheel that tapers externally towards the midpoint of the wheel. As this pact is stronger than straight wheels, it accepts advanced lateral loads. The straight wheel with a tapered face is chiefly used for gear teeth, grinding threads, etc.

Tapered Grinding Wheels

Straight Cup Grinding wheels

This Straight cup wheel forms an option for cup wheels in cutter and tool grinders, having an extra radial surface of grinding is favorable.

Straight Cup Grinding Wheel amazon
Photo By AliExpress

Dish cup grinding wheels

This is used primarily in jig grinding and cutter grinding. It is a very thin cup-style grinding wheel that permits grinding in crevices and slots. 

Dish Cup Grinding wheel amazon

Saucer Grinding wheels

Saucer Grinding Wheel is an exceptional grinding profile used for grinding twist drills and milling cutters. This finds wide usage in non-machining areas, as these saw filers are used by saucer wheels to maintain saw blades. 

Saucer Grinding Wheel
Photo By Amazon

Diamond Grinding wheels

In diamond wheels, industrial diamonds remain bonded to the edge. This is used to grind hard materials like concrete, gemstones & carbide tips. A slitting saw is designed for slicing gemstones like hard materials.

Diamond Cut Grinding Wheel
Photo By Amazon

Grit or Grain of Grinding Wheels

The grit or grain is used to indicate a general size of abrasive for making a grinding wheel. Grits or Grain size is denoted by a number that indicates the number of meshes per linear inch of the screen through which the grain pass when they are graded after crushing.

Generally, the coarse wheel is used for fast removal of the material and the finely graded wheel should be used to grind Hard, Brittle materials. The different Grits or Grain of the grinding wheel are as follows

Types of Grit Grit or Grain Size
Coarse10, 12, 14, 16, 20, 24
Medium30, 36, 46, 54, 60
Fine80, 100, 120, 150, 180
Very Fine220, 240, 280, 320, 400, 500, 600

Grade of Grinding wheel

The grade refers to the harness or strength with which the bond holds the abrasive grains of a grinding wheel in place. The Grade is indicated by the English alphabet A to Z. A denotes Softest and Z denotes Hardest Grade. The different grades of the grinding wheel are as follows

SoftA, B, C, D, E, F, G, H
MediumI, J, K, L, M, N, O, P
HardQ, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z

Structure of Grinding wheel

The structure refers to the spacing between the abrasive grains in the grinding wheel. It is denoted by the number of cutting edges per unit area of the wheel face and the size of void spaces between grains. If there is a large number of cutting edges per unit area, the structure is called a Dense structure otherwise it is called an open structure. The different structures of the grinding wheel are as follows:

Dense1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Open9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15

Specification or Nomenclature of Grinding Wheels

The Indian standard marking system ( IS: SS1-1954 ) has been used to indicate the various characteristics of a grinding wheel. Each marking consists of 6 symbols, denoting the following characteristics

  • Abrasive 
  • Grain Size
  • Grade 
  • Structure
  • Bond type
  • Manufactures record

W     A     30     I     4     V     17

W (Prefix) = Manufacture abrasive type symbols.

A (Abrasive) = [ A = Aluminum Oxide ], [ C = Silicon Carbide ], [ D = Diamond ]

30 (Grain Size) = 4 Types of grain Size.

  • Coarse= 10,12,14,16,20,24
  • Medium=30,36,46,54,60
  • Fine=80,100,120,150,180
  • Very fine=220,240,280,320,400,500,600

I (Grade) = Grade categories into 3 parts.

  • Soft= A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H
  • Medium=I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P
  • Hard=Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z

4 (Structure) =  Structure categories in 2 parts.

  • Dense= 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
  • Open= 9,10,11,12,13,14,15

V (Bond Type) = Verified Bond

  • V= Verified
  • B= Resionid
  • R= Rubber
  • E= Shellac
  • S= Silicon
  • O= Oxychloride  

17 (Suffix) = Manufacturing abrasive type symbol

Grinding wheel specification

Grinding wheel bond types

A bond is an abrasive material used to hold abrasive particles together. The bonding material does not cut during the grinding operations. Its main function is to hold the grains together with varying degrees of strength. The different standard grinding wheel bonds are vitrified, resinoid, silicate, shellac, rubber, and metallic.

Grinding Wheel Bond types
  • Vitrified Bond: This is the most common type of grinding wheel bond. It is made from a mixture of ceramic materials and is designed to hold the abrasive grains together under high pressure. Vitrified bonds are very strong and rigid, making them ideal for grinding hard materials.
  • Resinoid Bond: This type of bond is made from a mixture of resin and filler materials. Resinoid bonds are flexible and can be used for both wet and dry grinding. They are also resistant to heat and are ideal for grinding soft materials.
  • Metal Bond: A bond is designed and made from a mixture of metallic powders such that abrasive grains are held together by a process called sintering.These type of bond are very strong and suitable for grinding on hard and brittle materials
  • Electroplated Bond: In this type of bond, abrasive grains are bonded to a metal substrate using an electroplating process. Electroplated bonds are very precise and are ideal for grinding delicate and complex shapes.
  • Hybrid Bond: This bond combines the properties of vitrified and resinoid bonds. It is designed to be strong and rigid like a vitrified bond, but also flexible like a resinoid bond. Hybrid bonds are ideal for grinding a wide range of materials.

How to select the right size for the Grinding wheel

Determine the Size of the Grinder

  • The first step is to be sure of the grinding wheel size one needs which is usually listed on the grinding wheel it basically gives the diameter of the wheel so one can check for its accommodation on their grinders

Measure the Wheel

  • Once you know the size of the grinder, you can measure the diameter of the grinding wheel that you will need.
  • This can be done using a tape measure or a caliper. Make sure to measure the wheel at its widest point, including the thickness of the wheel.
Right Size of Grinding Wheels

Determine the Arbor Size

  • The next step is to determine the arbor size of the grinder. This is the size of the hole in the center of the wheel that fits onto the spindle of the grinder.
  • It’s important to make sure that the arbor size of the wheel matches the arbor size of the grinder.

Check for Clearance

  • It’s important to check for clearance between the grinding wheel and the grinder housing. Make sure there is enough room for the wheel to rotate freely without rubbing against the housing.
  • If there isn’t enough clearance, you may need to select a smaller wheel.

Consider the Material Being Ground

  • The type of material being ground will also affect the size of the grinding wheel that you need. Harder materials require larger wheels to get the job done, while softer materials can be ground with smaller wheels.

Consult the Manufacturer

  • Finally, it’s always a good idea to consult the manufacturer of the grinder to get their recommendation for the right size of the grinding wheel.
  • They may have specific guidelines for the type of wheel that works best with their product.

Factors affecting the selection of Grinding wheels

Proper grinding wheel selection is essential to ensure that the required

  • Part quality.
  • Production rate.
  • The overall cost per part is achieved.

It normally depends upon several terms like

  • The type of grinding operation we performed
  • Grinding machine condition
  • Requirement of surface finishing
  • Shape and size of a workpiece
  • Workpiece material.
Factors affecting the selection of Grinding wheels

Difference between a cutting wheel and a Grinding Wheel

In the grinding wheel, there is the term Abrasive which we studied, it provides surface finishing helps to get a good surface finish of the workpiece, and also provides good luster.

ParametersCutting WheelsGrinding Wheels
PurposeDesigned to cut through material.Designed to remove material.
ShapeThin and flat with a slight curvature on the cutting edge.Thicker and have a more pronounced curvature on the grinding edge.
SpeedDesigned to be used at high speeds.Typically used at lower speeds.
MaterialTypically made from abrasive materials such as aluminum oxide or silicon carbide.Typically made from abrasive materials such as aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, or diamond.
ApplicationUsed for cutting through materials such as metal, concrete, or masonry.Used for removing material from surfaces or shaping objects.
SafetyMore prone to shattering or breaking if used incorrectly, which can be dangerous.Typically safer to use, but still require proper safety precautions such as wearing eye protection and using a dust mask.
types of Cutting Wheels

Applications of Grinding wheel

  • The main application of the grinding wheel is to remove the material in the form of tiny chips and make the surface smooth as possible.
  • The Grinding machine is a surface finishing Machine in which Grinding wheels are fixed (This is our tool) for the best surface texture.
  • Even the grinding wheel are different types as discussed above and their uses for the different workpieces.

How is a grinding wheel made

Video by Ian Collier

To find out the best grinding wheel here is an experiment

Video by Project Farm


How to perform Grinding wheel balancing

Grinding wheel balancing is essential to prevent vibration and reduce the risk of wheel failure. It can be performed by mounting the wheel onto a balancing arbor and rotating it while measuring the vibration with a balancing sensor. The sensor detects any unbalance and adjustments can be made by adding or removing weights until the wheel runs smoothly. This process ensures the grinding wheel operates efficiently and reduces the risk of damage to the machine, workpiece, or operator.

what is the price of a Grinding wheel balancing stand

Grinding wheel balancing stands come in various types and qualities, which affect their price. While basic models are available for as low as $50-100, more advanced and precise ones can cost over $500-1000 or more which is dependent on the brand, supplier and other accessories included with the product.

comparison of grinding wheel vs flap disc

Grinding wheels and flap discs are two types of abrasive tools used for material removal. While they share this common purpose, they differ in design, material, and applications. Grinding wheels are stiffer and better suited for heavy material removal, whereas flap discs are more flexible and ideal for finishing and blending tasks.

Grinding wheels are also more durable and last longer than flap discs, but flap discs produce smoother finishes with less vibration and noise. Selecting the most appropriate tool depends on the specific task and desired outcome, and it’s advisable to consult the manufacturer’s recommendations for each tool.

what are grinding wheel holders and their price?

Grinding wheel holders, also known as arbors, are used to securely hold and position grinding wheels during use. The price of a grinding wheel holder varies based on its type, size, and quality. Entry-level holders vary from 10-20 $ while the more precise and advanced variants are close to 100$ or more.

Grinding Wheel Hardness chart

Grinding Wheel Hardness chart


In conclusion, grinding wheels are an essential tool in the manufacturing industry, used for shaping and finishing various materials. Understanding the different types of grinding wheels and their specifications is crucial for selecting the appropriate wheel for a particular application. Factors such as grain type, grade, structure, and bond determine the performance and durability of a grinding wheel.

A careful selection process ensures that the wheel can withstand the required forces and temperatures while achieving the desired surface finish. Manufacturers should prioritize safety by selecting the right wheel for the job, using proper operating procedures, and performing regular maintenance to prevent accidents. Overall, grinding wheels play a vital role in achieving high-quality products and meeting customer expectations.


Print Friendly, PDF & Email

3 thoughts on “Unlock Grinding Wheels Specification, 7 Types Bonding, & Applications [PDF]”

  1. Pingback: Billig Casino

Leave a Comment