Laser Beam Machining: Definition, Working Principle, Advantages, Application [PDF]

What is Laser Beam?

Laser is Light Stimulated emission of Radiation. The unwanted material from the workpiece is removed by Laser beam or Laser Light. When the laser lights focus on the workpiece it melts and evaporates the workpiece material.

What is Laser Beam Machining?

Laser beam machining is a non-conventional machining method in which the operation is performed by laser light. The laser light has maximum temperature strikes on the workpiece, due to high temp the workpiece melts. The process uses thermal energy to remove material from a metallic surface.

what is laser cutting machine ?

Laser Beam Machining Working Principle

In this process, the Laser Beam is called monochromatic light. It is made to focus on the workpiece to be machined by a lens to give extremely high energy density to melt and vaporize any material. The Laser Crystal (Ruby) is in the form of a cylinder with flat reflecting ends which are placed in a flash lamp coil of about 1000W.

Laser Beam Machining
Laser Beam Machining

The Flash is simulated with the high-intensity white light from Xenon. The Crystal gets excited and emits the laser beam which is focused on the workpiece by using the lens. The beam produced is extremely narrow and can be focused on a pinpoint area with a power density of 1000 kW/cm2. as it produces high heat, the portion of the metal is melted.

laser cutting machine working principle

Laser Beam Machining Construction or Main Parts

Power Supply

A high voltage is required for Laser to work. The power is supplied to the system for exiting the electron. When the power is supplied the electron gets into an excited state which means ready to work.

Flash Lamps

Flash lamps are used for providing white and coherent light for a very short duration.


A capacitor is used for storing and releasing the charge. Here it is used during the flashing process.

Reflecting Mirror

A reflecting Mirror is used to reflect the light directly toward the workpiece. It is of two types Internal and external mirrors.


Lenses are provided for vision purposes. It shows the image in a bigger size so that it will be easy to operate on the given workpiece.


Workpiece is nothing but the object on which the operation is to be carried out. If a body requires any laser operation then we need the workpiece for the machine.

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Laser Beam Machining Application

Following are the application of Laser beam machining :

  • The laser beam machining process is used for making very small holes.
  • Mass macro machining production.
  • LBM is used in surgery.
  • Selective heat treatment of materials.
  • Complicated welding of non-conductive and refractory materials.
  • Micro-drilling operation.
  • Photography in medical science.
  • Spectroscopic Science.
laser cutting machine applications

Laser Beam Machining Advantage

The following are the advantages of laser beam machining :

  • Any material can be machined including non-metal.
  • The production rate is high.
  • There is no direct contact between the tool and the work.
  • There is no tool wear.
  • No mechanical force on the work.
  • The heat-affected zone is very small.
  • Heat treated and magnetic materials can be welded without losing their properties.
  • Soft materials like rubber & plastic can be machined.
  • Extremely small holes can be machined.

Read More : Submerged Arc Welding Machine (SAW)-Definition, Parts, Working, PDF

Laser Beam Machining Disadvantage

The following are the disadvantages of laser beam machining :

  • The overall efficiency of Laser machining is very low.
  • It is limited to thin sheets.
  • The life of the flash lamp is short.
  • It is not possible to remove a large number of metals.
  • The machined holes are not round and straight.
  • Not able to drill too deep holes.
  • It has a high cost.
  • A very low rate of metal-removing.

Laser Beam Cutting Machine

Laser beam cutting machines use a high-powered laser beam to melt or vaporize the material, leaving a clean and precise cut. Laser beam cutting machines have become increasingly popular in industries such as automotive, aerospace, and electronics, where precision and accuracy are crucial. These machines offer a number of advantages over traditional cutting methods, including faster cutting speeds, reduced waste, and improved accuracy.

Laser Beam Cutting Machine
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Additionally, laser beam cutting machines can be used on a variety of materials, including metals, plastics, and composites. As technology advances, laser beam cutting machines will continue to play a significant role in the manufacturing industry, providing a reliable and efficient way to produce high-quality products.

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What is Laser Beam Machining Process?

Laser beam machining is a non-conventional machining method in which the operation is performed by laser light. The laser light has maximum temperature strikes on the workpiece, due to high temp the workpiece melts. The process uses thermal energy to remove material from a metallic surface.

What is Laser Beam Machining used for?

Laser Beam Machining is used for the following applications:
1. Drilling
2. Cutting
3. Grooving
4. Marking
5. Cleaning
6. Turning

Which technology is used in Laser Beam Machining?

In a Laser Beam Machining a technology called as Optical Amplification process is used.

What are the types of laser?

The following are the types of laser :
1. Solid State
2. Fiber
3. Liquid
4. Gas
5. Semiconductor


In conclusion, laser beam machining has emerged as a highly effective and efficient technique for precision cutting and drilling of various materials. With its ability to achieve high levels of accuracy and precision, laser beam machining has become increasingly popular in various industries such as aerospace, automotive, and medical.

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