In this article, we are going to study the Definition, Types, Geometry, and Angle Nomenclature of Single Point cutting tool. This is a tool that helps to perform several operations (like Turning, Facing, and Producing Flat surfaces) on Lathe and Wood lathe, Shaper, and Planer machines.
Single Point Cutting Tool Definition
The single point cutting tool consists of a sharpened cutting part called its point and the shank. The point of the tool is bounded by the face (along which the chips slide as they are cut by the tool), the side flank or major flank the end flank or minor flank, and the base. As we know we perform several operations on the lathe (like turning and facing) from the single-point cutting tool.
Design and fabrication are very easy for this tool. This tool can be made at a very cheap rate as compared to others.
Single Point Cutting Tool Types
There are only two types of tools
- Single point cutting tool
- Multi Point cutting tool.
Single Point cutting tool
- One cutting point or tip is available
- Example: Lathe Machine, Planning Machine tool
Multi-Point cutting tool
- More than One cutting point or tip is available
- Example: Milling cutter, Grinding wheel, drill tool, extra.
Single Point Cutting Tool Material
This tool can be made from several materials which are as follows
- High carbon steel
- High-speed steel
- Cemented carbide
- CBN (Cubic boron nitrite)
Single Point Cutting Tool Geometry / Nomenclature
- Nose radius
- Cutting Edges
(Refer the video above to get a better understanding)
- Side Cutting edge angle
- End cutting-edge angle
- Side relief angle
- End relief angle
- Back Rack angle
- Side rack angle
Here you can see in this diagram
This is the main body of the tool. The shank is used to hold the tool (i.e. tool holder).
The surface or surface below and adjacent to the cutting edge is called the flank of the tool.
The surface on which the chips slide is called the face of the tool.
It is the intersection of the flan and the base of the tool. It is a curved portion at the bottom of the tool.
It is the point where the side cutting edge and end cutting edge intersect.
The nose radius will provide long life and also a good surface finish with it a sharp point on the nose.
It is the edge on the face of the tool which removes the material from the workpiece. The tool cutting edge consists of a side cutting edge (major cutting edge), an end cutting edge (minor cutting edge, and the nose).
Side cutting-edge angle
This angle also is known as the lead angle. This is the angle between the side cutting edge and the side of the tool shank.
End cutting-edge angle
This is the angle between the end cutting edge and a line normal to the tool shank.
Side relief angle
It is the angle between the portion of the side flank immediately below the side cutting edge and a line perpendicular to the base of the tool and measured at the right angle to the end flank.
End relief angle
It is the angle between the portion of the end flank immediately below the end cutting edge and a line perpendicular to the base of the tool and measured at the right angle to the end flank.
Back rack angle
It is the angle between the tool face and a line parallel to the base of the tool and measured in a plane perpendicular through the side cutting edge. The back rack angle is positive if the side cutting edge slopes downwards from the point towards the shank and The back rack angle is negative if the slope of is side cutting edge is reversed.
Side rack angle
It is the angle between the tool face and a line parallel to the base of the tool and measured in a plane perpendicular to the base and the side cutting edge. This angle gives the slope of the face of the tool from the cutting edge. The side rack angle is negative if the slope is toward the cutting edge. The side rack angle is positive if the slope is away from the cutting edge.
Single Point Cutting Tool Advantages
- Versatility: Single-point cutting tools can be used on a wide range of materials, including metal, wood, and plastic.
- Precision: It can produce very precise cuts, making them ideal for applications where accuracy is critical.
- Reduced Tool Wear: Because only a single point is in contact with the workpiece, there is less wear and tear on the cutting tool, reducing the need for frequent replacement.
- Ease of Sharpening: They are relatively easy to sharpen, allowing for quick and efficient maintenance.
- Lower Cost: Compared to other cutting tools, single point cutting tools are often more affordable, making them a cost-effective choice for many applications.
- Improved Surface Finish: It can produce a smooth surface finish on the workpiece, reducing the need for additional finishing processes.
- Reduced Cutting Forces: Single point cutting tools typically require less cutting force than other cutting tools, resulting in less stress on the workpiece and the cutting tool itself.
- Increased Productivity: They can often cut more quickly than other cutting tools, reducing production time and increasing productivity.
Single Point Cutting Tool Disadvantages
- There is having low tool wear rate.
- Shorter tool life.
- Low metal removal rate.
- Low productive.
Single Point Cutting Tool Application
- This tool is used in several machines for producing flat surfaces
- Lathe machine
- Turning: They are commonly used in turning operations, where a workpiece is rotated and the cutting tool removes material to create a cylindrical shape.
- Facing: It can also be used for facing operations, where the cutting tool removes material from the end of a workpiece to create a flat surface.
- Boring: Single point cutting tools can be used for boring operations, where the cutting tool removes material from the inside of a workpiece to create a hole of a specific diameter.
- Parting: Single-point cutting tools can also be used for parting operations, where the cutting tool separates a workpiece into two pieces by cutting through the material.
- Threading: It can be used for threading operations, where the cutting tool creates threads on the surface of a workpiece.
- Grooving: Single-point cutting tools can be used for grooving operations, where the cutting tool creates a groove or channel on the surface of a workpiece.
- Chamfering: Single-point cutting tools can be used for chamfering operations, where the cutting tool creates a beveled edge on the surface of a workpiece.
- Knurling: these tools can be used for knurling operations, where the cutting tool creates a pattern of small ridges on the surface of a workpiece to improve grip.
It is a tool that is used in production machines like Lathe Machines, Shaper Machines, Planer machines, and so on.
No. It is a different one. Drill bit tool used in the drilling machine.
A single-point cutting tool is used in drilling machines to create holes in materials. It has a cylindrical shank, a neck, and a cutting edge that is designed to remove material in a circular motion. Different cutting-edge geometries, such as the twist drill, center drill, and spot drill, are used depending on the material being drilled and the desired hole size and shape.
A single-point cutting tool is used in drawing to remove material from a metal rod or wire and create a specific shape or profile. The cutting edge is ground to a specific geometry based on the material and desired outcome. Proper maintenance is crucial for optimal cutting performance.
The price of a single point cutting tool can vary greatly depending on several factors such as the type of tool, material, and manufacturer. For example, a basic HSS (High-Speed Steel) twist drill bit can cost anywhere from $1 to $10, while a high-end solid carbide end mill can cost anywhere from $30 to $300 or more. The price for a tungsten carbide insert for turning operations can range from $5 to $50.
6. Nose radius
7. Cutting Edges
No. Here Multiple cutting tools are used.
The machines like Lathes, Shapers, Planer, and Slotter have this tool.
In conclusion, single-point cutting tools are used in machining to remove material from a workpiece. These tools come in various types and geometries, each designed for specific cutting operations. The nomenclature and angles of the tool are important in determining its capabilities and how it is used. Understanding the characteristics of different types of cutting tools is crucial in selecting the appropriate tool for the machining process, ensuring efficient and accurate material removal.