Submerged Arc Welding Machine: Definition, Parts, Working [PDF

What is Submerged Arc Welding?

This is a type of Arc welding process that was discovered in 1935 by Jones, Kennedy, and Rothermund. Submerged arc welding is defined as the joining of metals with the application of heat and granular flux. The welding process is used in long pipe welding, Electrical poles, Turbines, etc.

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Parts of Submerged Arc Welding

The main parts of Submerged Arc Welding are as follows:

  1. Consumable Electrode
  2. Power Sources
  3. Granular Flux
  4. Base Metal
  5. Electrode Holder

Consumable Electrode

The consumable electrode is the electrode that has current on it. When it touches the workpiece, it melts.

Power source

For the operation of welding, power is required to generate a good amount of heat so that workpiece and electrode can melt easily.

Granular Flux

The main function of Granular flux is to avoid the exceeding heat, which is generated when electrodes touch the workpiece.

Base Metal

The base metal can be of the following:

  • Carbon steels (structural and vessel construction)
  • Low alloy steels
  • Stainless steels
  • Nickel-based alloys

Electrode Holder

The main function of an electrode holder is to hold the electrode. This device is a non-conductor device.

Working of Submerged Arc Welding

The base metal is connected to a negative energy sources whereas the electrode is connected to the positive sources. In some device, the granular flux is fixed with the electrode holder or it might not be. When power is on, we will bring the electrode near the base metals where we have to start the welding with the help of the electrode holder.

Submerged Arc Welding Diagram

When it touches the base metal, a spark is produced between them, and at the same time granular is also provided. When the operation is finished we remove the electrode holder and also remove that granular flux. The welding operation which is done can be seen from the naked.

Applications of Submerged Arc Welding

The main applications of Submerged Arc welding are as follows:

  1. Carbon steels (structural and vessel construction)
  2. Low alloy steels
  3. Stainless steels
  4. Electrical Poles
  5. Wind turbine
  6. Pipes
  7. Nickel-based alloys
  8. Surfacing applications (wear-facing, build-up, and corrosion-resistant overlay of steels)

Advantages and Disadvantages of Submerged Arc Welding


  • High deposition rates (over 45 kg/h or 100 lb/h).
  • Deep weld penetration.
  • Sound welds with good control.
  • High-speed welding for thin sheet steels (up to 5 m/min or 16 ft/min).
  • Minimal fume and arc light emission.
  • Limited edge preparation is needed.
  • Suitable for indoor and outdoor use.
  • Welds are strong, uniform, ductile, corrosion-resistant, and impact-resistant.
  • Single-pass welds in thick plates with standard equipment.
  • No spattering due to the flux blanket.
  • 50% to 90% flux recovery and reuse.


  • Limited to ferrous and some nickel-based alloys.
  • Suited for long straight seams or rotated pipes/vessels.
  • Concerns with health and safety due to flux and slag residue.
  • Requires slag removal between passes and after welding.
  • Needs backing strips for root penetration.
  • Best for high-thickness materials.
Pros and Cons of Submerged Arc Welding

Video on Submerged Arc Welding

Credits : Arc Energy Resources


With this, we have discussed all aspects of submerged arc welding. If you still have any doubts feel free to ask in the comments.

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