Revolutionary Thermal Power Plant Definition, Layout, Working Diagram, 10 Location in India, [PDF]

In this article, we shall see the Definition, Component, Layout, Working Diagram, Advantages, Disadvantages, Application, and Location of the Thermal Power Plant in India. We have also provided a PDF for the same.

Thermal Power Plant
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Thermal Power Plant

In the 18th century, the Thermal Power Plant exists with a lot of improvements in the reciprocating steam engine (This reciprocating steam engine is used to develop the steam and with the use of an electric generator produces the electricity).In the year about 1905, the turbines entirely replaced reciprocating engines in large central power stations and continues the improvement process.

Thermal Power Plant Definition
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Role of Thermal Power Plant in the Current Power Generation Scenario

The development of power in any country depends upon the available resources in that country. The hydro-power plant depends on the natural availability of the site and the hydrological cycle. The new site cannot be created manually for hydropower plants. The development of nuclear power requires investment and Technology. Many times, the hydro-power plant suffers if a drought comes even once during a decade and the complete progress of the nation stops.

The calamity of rain drought on the power industry has been experienced in many states in the country. To overcome this difficulty it is necessary to develop a thermal power plant in the country that is very much suitable for baseload plants. The coal resources in India are about 5.7% of the proven reserve in the world. The geological reserves of coal in India are 193.8 billion tones. The thermal power sector contributes to nearly about 66 percent of installed capacity in India.

Thermal Power Plant
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The coal production in the country is increasing at the rate of 4.6 percent every year and new plants are set up in many parts of the country to increase the power production to meet the demand to increase the per capita income of the country. 

An increase in power generation led us to the following

  • Countries’ income has been increased.
  • The standard of living has increased.
  • Reducing unemployment.
  • Development in all sectors.
  • Development in new technology.
  • The GDP of the country has increased.

Thermal Power Plant Definition

A Thermal power plant is an electric-producing plant. The fuel used is water which is a renewable source of energy and also the fuel used is coal-fired, liquefied fuel, natural resources, and uranium enrichment. The Essential component used in this system is Pump, Boiler, Turbine, and Condenser.

In brief, Water flows from a pump to Boiler (Here coal is burning so water gets heated and converts into steam) this steam strikes the turbine blade So the turbine blades rotate and a turbine is connected to the 3-phase supply generator. The generator generates electricity and there left Steam sends to the condenser to cool and again the cycle starts repeat process. This works like a closed cycle.

Thermal Power Plant Layout

Thermal power plant layout
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Components or Parts of Thermal Power Plant

The main parts of Thermal Power Plant are as following

  • River or Canal
  • Circulating Water Pump
  • Condenser
  • Heater
  • Economizer
  • Boiler
  • Superheater
  • Turbine
  • Generator
Thermal power plant

River or Canal

As we know Here a huge amount of water is present and it is further used for the generation of electricity.

Circulating Water Pump

It circulates water from the river by the pump.


The condenser presents here to cool the working fluid or we can say to remove the heat from the water.

Heater (Low or High Pressure)

As the name indicates a low or high-pressure heater means that it increases or decreases the pressure of the water.


When water pressure gets increased there some amount of heat generates and that heat sends from the economizer to the boiler. Above Economizer, there Air preheater is present which work is to heat the air and further that heated air is used in the boiler.


Here Coal is burning which means that the heat is produced that heats used to heat the water and the water changes its property and then it sends to the superheater, where it becomes steam with high heat. In the Boiler, there are two section

  • Coal storage and Coal Handling which works to store the coal and further used it when needed.
  • Ash Handling and Ash Storage Plant works is when coal is burned the ash produced that ash goes to Ash storage.

Super Heater

Water is heated at high temperature and it becomes superheated here it becomes steam.


The main function of the turbine is that when steam strikes the turbine the blade rotates and it converts the Heat energy into mechanical energy.


The generator is used to convert the mechanical energy into electric energy which is electricity.

How Do Thermal Power Plant Work

Thermal Power plant
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  • A fuel source such as coal, oil, or natural gas is burned in a boiler to generate heat.
  • Water is pumped from a source such as a river and circulated through the boiler to absorb the heat and become pressurized.
  • The pressurized water is sent to a heat exchanger called an economizer to further increase its temperature and efficiency.
  • The heated water is sent to a steam generator or superheater, where it is converted into steam at a high temperature and pressure.
  • The steam is then sent to a steam turbine, where its energy is converted into mechanical energy by rotating the turbine blades.
  • The mechanical energy is then converted into electrical energy by the use of a generator.
  • After passing through the turbine, the steam is sent to a condenser, where it is cooled and converted back into water.
  • The cooled water is then sent back to the boiler to be heated again, and the cycle is repeated.

Efficiency Of A Thermal Power Station

  • The efficiency of a thermal power station is relatively low because a significant amount of heat is lost in various stages of the plant, with the majority of it lost in the condenser.
  • Thermal efficiency is determined by calculating the ratio of the heat equivalent of the mechanical energy transmitted to the turbine shaft to the heat of coal combustion.
  • For modern thermal power stations, the thermal efficiency is around 30%, meaning that only 30% of the mechanical energy equivalent to the heat produced by coal combustion is available at the turbine shaft.
  • The overall efficiency, which takes into account the heat equivalent of the electrical output, is about 29%, slightly lower than the thermal efficiency.
Thermal Power Plant Efficiency
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Advantages Thermal Power Plant

  • The Installation cost is low as compared to other power generation like Hydroelectric power plants.
  • Even less space is required.
  • The fuel we use in this Thermal Power Plant is cheaper.

Disadvantages of Thermal Power Plant

  • Global warming increases because it pollutes the atmosphere due to the production of a huge amount of smoke.
  • The thermal power plant’s overall efficiency is low below thirty (30) percent.

Application of Thermal Power Plant

  • The application of the Thermal Power Plant is to produce electricity (The generation of electricity, various stages come across which has been already you know as discussed above).
  • Almost 66 percent of electricity has been produced by this Thermal Power Plant In India, Even it will be the more percentage.
Thermal Power Plant Applications
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Location In India Thermal Power Plant

A good number of the thermal power plant has set up in various cities across India. The power plant produces two-thirds of electricity required for the nation and even at the world level, the generation of electricity is too high as compared to other power stations.

Location In India Thermal Power Plant
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Here are the top 10 biggest thermal power plants in India

  • Vindhyanchal, Madhya Pradesh
  • Mundra Power Station, Gujrat
  • Mundra Ultra Mega Power Plant, Gujrat
  • Talcher Super Thermal Power Station, Odisha
  • Sipat Thermal Power, Chattisgarh
  • NTPC Dadri, Uttar Pradesh
  • NTPC Ramagundam, Andhra Pradesh
  • Korba Super Thermal Power Station, Chattisgarh
  • Rihand Thermal Power Station, Uttar Pradesh
  • Jharsugda Thermal power station, Odisha


What are geothermal power plants

Geothermal power plants generate electricity from the Earth’s core heat. There are three types: dry steam, flash steam, and binary cycle. They offer clean energy with low greenhouse gas emissions, high reliability, and a low environmental impact, but require a specific location and can have a high initial cost.

What are the components of thermal power plants

  • Boiler
  • Turbine
  • Generator
  • Condenser
  • Feedwater pump
  • Cooling tower
  • Electrical transformer
  • Control room
  • Ash handling system
  • Fuel storage and handling system

how does thermal power plant work

Thermal power plants convert the heat energy of fossil fuels into electrical energy by burning fuel in a boiler, producing steam to drive a turbine and generator, and condensing the steam back into water to repeat the process. The electrical energy is then sent to the power grid.


Thermal power plants are industrial facilities that utilize fossil fuels like coal, oil, and gas to generate electricity. This process involves a series of operations that convert heat energy into mechanical energy, which is then transformed into electrical energy. Various components such as boilers, turbines, generators, and cooling towers work in conjunction to ensure the efficient production of electricity.

These facilities are strategically located near coal-rich areas in India and are critical in fulfilling the country’s growing energy requirements. However, the sustainable operation of thermal power plants must be ensured to minimize their environmental impact while still meeting energy demands.


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