Master 20 Types of Gauges for Precision Measurements [PDF]

Contents

In this article, we shall see the 20 different types of gauges for precision measurement. We have also provided a PDF for the same.

Introduction

Metrology is a significant department of Mechanical engineering that deals with the measurement of a workpiece. Metrology is often called the science of measurement that depends upon two significant factors. The factors are time and quantity, which has to be measured by an engineer to ensure the precision of a workpiece.

Every material has some degree of error in it that can impact negatively the mechanical efficiency of a machine component. Therefore, for removing those errors from a workpiece some measurement tools are devised engineers such as surface texture measurement devices, tolerance measurement devices, screw threads measurement device and so on.

Gauge is the tool used by engineers to rectify errors in terms of linear measurement. Linear measurement deals with measuring lengths, heights, diameters, etc. It is also used by engineers to secure variance in a workpiece. In this assessment, Gauges and their types are critically analyzed briefly in all possible ways. Everyone is seeking appropriate knowledge about Gauges due to the conciseness of the description.

Definition of Gauge

A gauge is an inspection or measuring tool that is used by engineers to measure the tolerance limit of a component. Gauges are mainly utilized by engineers to segregate the appropriate dimension of a workpiece. Some fundamental limitations are present within which a Gauge should be made by manufacturers.

Therefore, if the Gauge seemed accurate about the ideal Gauge then the workpiece should be measured with that Gauge. The operator can use them without having vast knowledge of operating those mechanical components. Also, It consume less time compared to other measuring devices.

Types of Gauges in Metrology

Plain Gauge is defined as the dimension measuring or inspective tools, without a scale to measure any manufacturing part of tools. In order to check shafts and the holes, Plain Gauge is used. Plain Gauge is classified into four different types which are as follows

• Depending on the manufacturing principle and type
• Standard Gauge
• Limit Gauge
• Indicating Gauge
• Combination Gauge
• Depending on the purpose
• Workshop Gauge
• Inspection Gauge
• Master Gauge (Reference Gauge)
• Depending on the function
• Dimension Measuring Gauge
• Inside Dimension Measuring Gauge
• Plug Gauge
• Pin Gauge
• Outside Dimension Measuring Gauge
• Snap Gauge
• Ring Gauge
• Both sides Dimension Measuring Gauge
• Calliper Gauge
• Geometric Measuring Gauge
• Gauges for concentricity
• Gauge of Taper
• Gauge of Profile
• Depending on the Design
• Single limit and Double limit
• Single-ended and Double-ended
• Fixed and Fastened

Depending on the Manufacturing Principle and Type

Standard Gauge

A standard Gauge can be defined as the measuring tool that checks the copy of the mating part of the material. This gauge cannot be used by an engineer due to the existence of tolerance in a workpiece.

Limit Gauge

A limit Gauge is defined as the gauge that is used to measure a component by two limits, one is High and another is Low. So, there are two gauges to measure the dimension of the material. Two gauges are the Go-Gauge and the Not-Go-Gauge. The part of the component has to pass through the Go-Gauge and for the Not-Go-Gauge, it has not to pass. This gauge is widely used in industries.

Indicating Gauge

Indicating Gauge is defined as the gauge which is used to measure a part of a material and shows the measurement on a display. This gauge displays the measurement on the indicator or display, so it is termed the Indicating Gauge. This gauge is more complex than other gauges. The best example of the Indicating Gauge is Dial Gauge. Nowadays such indicating gauge has a system of visual display.

Combination Gauge

A combination Gauge is defined as a gauge which can take more than one dimension of the parts of the material consecutively. It is very useful as at a time more than one measurement of the parts can be taken. It consumes less time and produces more efficient results.

Depending on the Purpose

Workshop Gauge

Workshop Gauge is defined as the gauge which is used to measure the parts of the material at the time of production. This gauge is used in the production time at the workshop so this gauge is named the Workshop Gauge. The Workshop gauge is designed like that, where the tolerance is in the center line. So the Workshop Gauge is very useful in the plants or workshops rather than the others.

Inspection Gauge

An Inspection Gauge is defined as the gauge which is used by the inspectors in the plants after finishing the manufacturing of the products to accept it. As the acceptance or the rejection is depending on the gauge measurement so the tolerance of this Inspection Gauge is slightly more than the Workshop Gauge. If the tolerance of the material part is high then it is accepted otherwise the material should be rejected.

Master Gauge (Reference Gauge)

Master Gauge is defined as the gauge to check the other gauges. As the expenditure is involved, the measuring instruments, optimizers, comparators, slip gauges, etc. are checked by the master gauge or reference gauge.

All the other gauges are checked by this gauge so this gauge is called the Master Gauge. It is very useful because the efficiency of the other gauges depends on the master gauge. If the master gauge cannot check the other gauges or instruments properly then those gauges and instruments cannot give accurate results.

Depending on the function

Dimension Measuring Gauge

Dimension Measuring Gauge is defined as a gauge that measures very small parameters of the parts of the material with very high accuracy. These dimensions are depth, height, diameter, etc., and are measured by the Dimension Measuring Gauge. This Gauge is used to get very specific and accurate dimensions. This Dimension Measuring Gauge is classified into the other three types. Those are as follows:

Inside Dimension Measuring Gauge

Inside Dimension Measuring Gauge is used to measure the inner or inside diameter, width, height, etc. For example, the inner diameter of a bolt can be measured by Plug Gauge. Inside Dimension Measuring Gauge is classified into different types which are as follows

• Plug Gauge
• Pin Gauge
Plug Gauge

Plug Gauge is a cylindrical shaped Go and Not-Go type Gauge. It is used to measure the diameter of hole-like things with accuracy. To measure the parts, it has to pass a Measurement and another one has not to pass the Measurement. That is called Go and Not-Go measurement.

Pin Gauge

Pin Gauge generally works on the same working principle as the Plug Gauge, which is used to measure a diameter that is more than 75mm. Measurement of the width of the slots or grooves is done by Pin Gauge. It is measured across the cylinder bore and the gauge is placed lengthwise.

Outside Dimension Measuring Gauge

Outside Dimension Measuring Gauge is used to measure the outer or outside diameter, width, height, etc. As an example, the outer diameter of a bolt can be measured by Snap Gauge. Dimension Measuring Gauge is classified into different types which are as follows

• Snap Gauge
• Ring Gauge
Snap Gauge

The Snap Gauge is the gauge which is U-shaped Go and Not-Go type gauge. It has jaws by which it checks the accuracy and tolerance. To measure the parts, it has to pass a Measurement and another one has not to pass the Measurement. That is called Go and Not-Go measurement. Here Go is a high or maximum limit and the Not-Go is the low or minimum limit.

Ring Gauge

The Ring Gauge is the same as the snap gauge but it is separated the Go and Not-Go pass or in a single ring.

Both Sides Dimension Measuring Gauge

Both Sides Dimension Measuring Gauge is used to measure the outer or outside and inner or the inside, both diameters, width, height, etc. For example, the outer and inner diameters of a bolt can be measured by Calipers. Both Sides of Dimension Measuring Gauge are classified into different types which are as follows

• Caliper Gauge
• Geometric Measuring Gauge
• Gauges for concentricity
• Gauge of Taper
• Gauge of Profile
Caliper Gauge

The Caliper Gauge is the gauge that is used to measure the distance of an object, between two different sides. It is very useful as it can give more accurate results and is very easy to use. Such examples are the Vernier caliper, Dial caliper, Digital Caliper, Micrometer caliper, etc.

Geometric Measuring Gauge

Geometric measuring gauges are defined as measuring devices that can measure their concentricity, taper, and profile. Mainly the geometric measuring gauge is used to measure the roughness or unevenness of the surface. There are several types of measuring and calculating procedures for roughness characterization through its concentricity, profile, and so on.

Gauges for Concentricity

The concentricity gauge is used to measure runout by revolving the cylinder or the loaded round on two pairs of bearings that are captured in anodized aluminum blocks. This gauge mainly measures the circle of the plane.

Gauges for taper

The taper gauge is used to measure the internal tapers. This gauge looks like an internal gauge in the shape of a frustum of a cone.

Gauges for Profile

The profile gauge or contour gauge is a tool that is used to draw the profile or copy it on to another surface.

Depending on the Design

Single limit and Double limit

The single limit gauge has a jaw that is fixed that makes the gauge limited, But in the case of the double limit gauge, it has a movable jaw that can be doubled with the help of the adjustable jaws.

Single-ended and Double-ended

The single-end gauge has a single end that could be either ‘Go end’ or ‘No-go end’. But in Double-end gauge has both ends, it’s one end is ‘Go end’ another one is ‘No-go end’.

Fixed and Fastened Gauges

In fixed end gauge both jaws are fixed at the same time, but in Fastened end gauge only one jaw can move or adjustable. These types are mainly a type of snap gauges.

conclusion

In conclusion of Gauges and its types, it can be asserted that the field of metrology is incomplete without Gauges. The precision of a machine component is one of the most important factors that decide the mechanical advantage and well as the efficiency of the machine component. Due to this reason, proper knowledge about Gauges should be gathered by engineers before making a machine component. Working in a lathe, milling, grinding, or another metal forming process cannot be made within the tolerance limit and without measuring their error.